Blabicher 1997 — IV magnesium sulfate was effective as an adjunct for severe mania.
Heiden 1999 — seven of ten severely agitated treatment-resistant manics improved markedly on up to 23 days of IV magnesium sulfate, added to medication. Neuroleptic and benzo doses were able to be significantly reduced.
Giannini 2000 — magnesium oxide augmentation of verapamil was significantly more effective for mania as compared to controls on the drug alone.
Chouinard 1990 — response in at least 50% of severe, treatment-resistant, rapid cyclers was equivalent to, or better than, that to lithium.